Parenting Styles


The basis of parenting is preparing and guiding a new life into this world with the skills and knowledge necessary to foster a successful, independent life for themselves. However, each parenting style may have unforeseen complications. As a general rule of thumb, parenting methods fall primarily into one of four categories.


Authoritative parents are attentive and open when communicating with their children, maintain healthy boundaries and rules, and emphasize lessons for poor behavior. These children will likely become stable, level-headed adults who can bond strongly with their parents throughout adulthood.

Characteristics of Authoritative-raised children may look like the following, according to Baumrind:

  • Socially confident, can develop and maintain relationships with ease
  • Are happier with themselves and have a more positive outlook on life
  • Emotionally level headed
  • Self-assured in their capabilities, and handle new situations with confidence


Emotionally cold and distant, Authoritarian parents strongly prefer raising their children 'by the books.' Firm rules are the groundwork through which their children live, and any deviation away from this structure is typically met with harsh punishment. There is little or no room for parent-child bonding, which can lead the child to question their self-worth and develop a pessimistic outlook on themselves and life.

Children raised under Authoritarian parenting may exhibit the following:

  • Timid or highly reserved demeanor in new social situations
  • Believe that receiving love must be achieved through compliance and achievement
  • Are more prone to conditioning, despite persistent feelings of anxiety and depression
  • Are more prone to emotionally lashing out
  • Social awkwardness
  • Have difficulty relaxing; may feel anxious to be productive or otherwise 'useful.'
  • May have trouble thinking for themselves due to a lack of identity or individuality


Carefree and lax by nature, boundaries and expectations are not a priority for Permissive parents. Even when negative behavior in their children would justify a consequence, these parents would weather take a passive approach. Children of Permissive parents are more likely to be thrill seekers who make risky decisions on a whim. However, underlying depression and anxiety may also cause internal conflict.

Children of Permissive parents may exhibit the following characteristics:

  • Lack of drive towards achieving goals; little to no direction in life
  • Difficulty in making rational decisions
  • Behavioral problems and substance abuse
  • Poor emotional regulation, increased hostility
  • Poor time management skills, develop long-term unhealthy habits

Negligent (Uninvolved)

Uninvolved parents are the most avoidant in their children's lives because they experience a strong level of indifference. Communication and establishing rules are hardly a concern, and children are usually free to engage in behavioral misconduct as they, please. Children of Uninvolved parents may have difficulty with overattachment in relationships due to perceived fears of abandonment. High anxiety levels are likely with children, as their upbringing never taught them healthy bonding.

Children of Uninvolved parents may exhibit the following characteristics:

  • More inclined to be emotionally withdrawn or suffer from anxious attachment
  • Highly independent; may feel they can only rely on themselves and struggle to ask for help
  • Poor stress regulation in the face of problems or conflict
  • More prone to substance abuse and addiction